GCSE AQA Physics P2

Pressure in a Gas

Gas Pressure is created when gas particles collide with the walls of their container. The more often the particles collide with the walls, and the faster they are moving, the greater the pressure. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the gas pressure in enclosed spaces depending on the containers volume. Note-Some mobile devices may require you to tap full screen during playback to view video content. The formula for this equation is written like this: $pV = { \text K}$ Chilled practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed. A gas in a sealed container has a volume of 12 m3. The pressure of the gas is 80 Pa. The volume of the container is increased and the pressure falls to 60 Pa. What is the new volume of the container ? The temperature of the gas remains unchanged. Frozen practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution.…
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Wave Speed

Wave speed is given in meters per second (the number of waves that pass per second). Wavelength is measured in meters and frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), or number of waves per second. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the speed of a wave. The equation for this calculation is written like this: $v = { \text f \; \text x \; \lambda }$ Chilled practice question Calculate the velocity of a wave with a wavelength of 6 m and a frequency of 50 Hz Frozen practice question Find the velocity of a wave which has a time period of 10 s and a wavelength of 24 m, you will need to calculate the frequency from the wave period equation first. Science in context Wave speed is given in meters per second (the number of waves that pass per second). Wave Speed = Frequency x Wave length. Wavelength is measured in meters and frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), or number of waves per second.
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Turning Moments

The size of the turning effect is called a turning moment. As Newton’s first law of motion states, an object will remain at rest if the forces are balanced. When the sum of the forces add to zero, a body will remain at rest or move at a constant velocity. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the moments and apply the results to a real life situation for example forces acting on a see-saw. The equation for this calculation is written like this: $M = { \text F \; \text x \; \text D}$ Chilled practice question The anticlockwise moment is is 75 Nm. What distance from the pivot must you place a 2.5 Kg mass for the clockwise and anticlockwise moments to equal ? Take gravity as 10N\Kg Frozen practice question You sit 2 m away from the pivot on a see-saw and your weight is 500 N. Your friend has a mass of 25 Kg. How far away from the pivot on the other side should they sit for the see-saw to balance ? Take gravity as 10N/Kg Science in context The size of the turning effect is called a turning moment.Turning moment =…
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Moments

Forces can cause an object to rotate and the turning effect of the force is called a moment. If a resultant force acts on an object about a fixed turning point called the pivot or fulcrum it will cause the object to rotate e.g. using a spanner, a screwdriver, opening a door hanging on hinges. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the moment in a real life example. The equation for this calculation is written like this: $M = { \text F \; \text x \; \text D}$ Chilled practice question A 5 N force is applied to a spanner 15 cm from the pivot. Calculate the moment. Frozen practice question A screwdriver was used to open a tin of paint with a moment of 1.5 Nm exerted 25 cm from the pivot. What force was being applied ? Science in context Forces can cause an object to rotate and the turning effect of the force is called a moment. If a resultant force acts on an object about a fixed turning point called the pivot or fulcrum it will cause the object to rotate e.g. using a spanner, a screwdriver, opening a door hanging on hinges. M = F x d, where M = the moment of…
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Force on a Spring

When a force acts on a spring it is stretched or compressed, its length will changes by an amount e from its original length. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the force on a spring given its extension and spring constant. Note-Some mobile devices may require you to tap full screen during playback to view video content. The equation for this calculation is written like this: $F = { \text k \; \text x \; \text e}$ Chilled practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed. A spring is stretched 0.25 m, it has a spring constant of 20 N/m, calculate the force on the spring. Frozen practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and…
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Pressure

Pressure can be calculated if you know the force applied to or by an object and the contact area. The units are newtons per square meter, or N/m2. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the pressure exerted by an object if you have been given the force applied to the object and given area. The equation for this calculation is written like this: $P = { \text F \; \text / \; \text A}$ Chilled practice question The base of a brief case has an area of 25 cm 2 and a mass of 5 Kg. Calculate the pressure exerted by the briefcase when placed on a surface. Take the force of Gravity as 10N/Kg. Frozen practice question An elephant exerts a pressure of 53500 N/m2 one of its feet has an area of 0.15 m2. Calculate the mass of the elephant. Take the force of Gravity as 10N/Kg. Science in context Pressure can be calculated if you know the force applied and the area using the physics equation, P = F/A. Pressure is equal to force divided by area, units are newtons per square meter, or N/m2.
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Force, Mass and Acceleration

An object of constant mass accelerates in proportion to the force applied. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the force applied to an object if you are given its mass and acceleration. The equation for this calculation is written like this: $F = { \text m\; \text x \; \text a}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the force applied to cannon ball which accelerates at 7m/s2 which has a mass of 5 Kg. Frozen practice question A rocket has a driving force of 15 N and a mass of 250 g. Calculate the acceleration of the rocket. Science in context Force (N) = mass (kg) × acceleration (m/s²). Therefore, an object of constant mass accelerates in proportion to the force applied.
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Forces and Work Done

The unit for work done is the joule (J), or Newton meter (N-m). One joule is equal to the amount of work that is done when 1 N of force moves an object over a distance of 1 m. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the work done to move an object through a known distance. Note-Some mobile devices may require you to tap full screen during playback to view video content. The formula for this equation is written like this: w = f x d Chilled practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed. How much work has been done if a car is pushed along the road 550 cm with a force of 400 N ? Frozen practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam.…
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Momentum

All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the momentum in a moving object. The equation is written like this: $P = { \text m\; \text x \; \text v}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the momentum of a 1200 Kg vehicle travelling at 5 m/s. Frozen practice question A girl has a mass of 60 Kg. How fast is she moving if her momentum is 240 Kgm/s ? Science in context All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.
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Change in Momentum

All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the change in momentum and the affect it has on impact forces. The equation is written like this: $F = { mv \unicode{x2013} mu \over \text{t}}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the force acting if there is a change in momentum from zero to 168 Kgm/s for 7 s. Frozen practice question A 50 kg gymnast is thrown in the air and travels at 5 m/s. The contact time to throw the gymnast is 0.5 seconds. Calculate the force acting on the gymnast. Science in context .All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.
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Wave Period

The period of a wave is the time it takes to complete one cycle. The unit for a wave period is seconds, and it is inversely proportional to the frequency of a wave, which is the number of cycles of a wave that occur in one second. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the wave period. The equation is written like this: $T = { \text 1 \; \text / \; \text f}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the wave period for a wave with a frequency of 2 KHz. Frozen practice question Calculate the frequency for a wave with a time period of 20 seconds. Science in context The period of a wave is the time it takes to complete one cycle. The unit for a wave period is seconds, and it is inversely proportional to the frequency of a wave, which is the number of cycles of a wave that occur in one second.
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Transformers

A transformer is an piece of electrical apparatus which will increase or decrease the voltage in an alternating current. It can be designed to “step up” or “step down” voltages and is based on the magnetic induction principle. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate voltages in step up and step down transformers. The equation is written like this: ${ \text V_{1} \; \text / \; \text V_{2} \; \text = \; \text N_{1} \; \text / \; \text N_{2} \;}$ Chilled practice question A transformer has 300 turns on its primary coil and 100 turns on it secondary coil. What voltage is induced in the secondary coil if the primary voltage is 96 V ? Frozen practice question A transformer has 320 turns on the primary coil and 800 turns on the secondary coil. Find the voltage across the primary coil when the voltage across the secondary coil is 1320 V. Science in context A transformer is an piece of electrical apparatus which will increase or decrease the voltage in an alternating current. It can be designed to “step up” or “step down” voltages and is based on the magnetic induction principle.When a voltage is introduced to one coil, called the primary coil it…
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The Motor Effect

A current-carrying wire or coil can exert a force on a permanent magnet. The force increases if the strength of the magnetic field and/or current increases. This is called the motor effect. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the force on a wire carrying a current in a magnetic field. The equation is written like this: $F = { \text B \; \text x \; \text I \; \text x \; \text L}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the force on a wire carrying a current of 3 A. 0.25 m of the wire is in the magnetic field. The magnetic flux density is 15 T. Frozen practice question The force on a wire in a magnetic field is 30 N. The magnetic flux density is 3 T and the length of wire in the magnetic field is 50 cm. Calculate the current. Science in context A current-carrying wire or coil can exert a force on a permanent magnet.The force increases if the strength of the magnetic field and/or current increases. This is called the motor effect.
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Magnification

The magnification can be calculated if you know the actual size of the object and its image size. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the magnification of objects in given examples. Note-Some mobile devices may require you to tap full screen during playback to view video content. The equation is written like this: Magnification = image height / object height Chilled practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed. Calculate an objects magnification if the image height is 70 mm and the object height is 28 mm. Frozen practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed. Calculate the image height if an object height is 25 mm and the magnification is 3.5.…
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Uniform Acceleration

Uniform or constant acceleration is a type of motion in which the velocity of an object changes by an equal amount in every equal time period. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate uniform acceleration. The equation is written like this: ${ \text v^{2} \; \text – \; \text u^{2} \; \text = \; \text 2as}$ Chilled practice question A racing car travelling at 20 m/s decelerates uniformly at 1.5 m/s2 towards a slip road 100 m away. Calculate its velocity when it reaches the slip road. Frozen practice question A ball is dropped 12 m from the top of a building. Calculate the velocity of the ball when it hits the ground. Ignore any value for air resistance. Acceleration due to gravity is 9.8m/s2 Science in context Uniform or constant acceleration is a type of motion in which the velocity of an object changes by an equal amount in every equal time period.
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Pressure in Fluids

Fluid pressure is exerted on the surface of an object in a liquid. This pressure causes upthrust . An object placed in a liquid will begin to sink. As it sinks, the liquid pressure on it increases and so the upthrust increases. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the pressure on an object in a fluid at a known depth. The equation is written like this: $P = { \text h \; \text x \; \text p \; \text x \; \text g}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the pressure 180 m below the surface of sea water. The density of sea water is 1025 Kg/m3. Use Gravity as 9.8 N/kg. Frozen practice question Calculate the density of a liquid if the pressure exerted is 5880 Pa at a depth of 75 cm, take the Gravitational field strength of the Earth to be 9.8 N/Kg. Science in context Fluid pressure is exerted on the surface of an object in a liquid. This pressure causes upthrust. An object placed in a liquid will begin to sink. As it sinks, the liquid pressure on it increases and so the upthrust increases.
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Acceleration

Acceleration is how quickly the velocity is changing whether it be speed, direction or both. Acceleration is a measure of how quickly the velocity of an object is changing. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the acceleration of a moving object. The equation is written like this: $a = { v \unicode{x2013} u \over \text{t}}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the acceleration if the velocity increases from 4 m/s to 76 m/s in 8 s. Frozen practice question How long does it take for the velocity of a bus to increase from 12 m/s to 20 m/s if it is accelerating at 4 m/s2. Science in context Acceleration is how quickly the velocity is changing whether it be speed, direction or both.
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Speed

Speed is how fast an object is moving in no given direction. Velocity is how fast an object is moving in a given direction. In physics, you can calculate the average speed by taking the total distance travelled and dividing it by the total time required to travel that distance. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the speed of an object, velocity is speed with direction for example 20 m/s north. The equation is written like this: $S = { \text D / T}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the speed of a car which travels 2000 m in 400 s. Frozen practice question How long does it take a car to travel 360 m at 12 m/s ? Science in context Speed is how fast an object is moving in no given direction. Velocity is how fast an object is moving in a given direction.
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Weight on the Moon

Weight is the force acting on an object due to gravity. The weight of an object is defined as the force of gravity on the object and can be calculated as the mass times the acceleration due to gravity. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the weight of an object on the moon due to its force of gravity. The equation is written like this: ${ \textit W} = {\text m \;} {\text x \;} {\text g}$ Chilled practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed. Calculate the weight of a flag pole on the moon, it has a mass of 5 Kg. Frozen practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed.…
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Weight on Earth

Weight is the force acting on an object due to gravity. The weight of an object can be defined as the force of gravity on the object. Since the weight is a force, its unit is the Newton. Demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the weight of an object due to the force of the Earths gravity. The equation is written like this: ${ \textit W} = {\text m \;} {\text x \;} {\text g}$ Chilled practice question Calculate the weight of a bench on Earth which has a mass of 25 Kg. Frozen practice question Calculate the mass of an elephant if it has a weight of 60 KN on Earth. Science in context Weight is the force acting on an object due to gravity.
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