Wave Speed

Wave speed is given in meters per second (the number of waves that pass per second). Wavelength is measured in meters and frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), or number of waves per second.


Forces can cause an object to rotate and the turning effect of the force is called a moment. If a resultant force acts on an object about a fixed turning point called the pivot or fulcrum it will cause the object to rotate e.g. using a spanner, a screwdriver, opening a door hanging on hinges.


Pressure can be calculated if you know the force applied to or by an object and the contact area. The units are newtons per square meter, or N/m2.

Kinetic Energy

In physics, the kinetic energy (KE) of an object is the energy that it has due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed for an object of a known mass to accelerate to a given velocity.

Specific Heat Capacity

Specific heat capacity is how much heat energy is required to raise 1 kg of a substance by 1 °C.


The quantity power is the rate at which work is done. The quicker work is done the greater the power.

Elastic Potential Energy

Stretching or squashing an object can transfer energy into its elastic potential energy store.


The size of the current is the rate of flow of charge. Electrons are negatively charged particles which transfer energy through wires as electricity.

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