Specific Latent Heat

Specific latent heat is the energy needed to change the state of a substance.

Gravitational Potential Energy

Lifting an object in a gravitational field transfers energy into the objects gravitational energy store. Gravitational potential energy is the energy an object has due to its height above Earth.


The efficiency of a device is the proportion of input energy that is converted to useful energy.

Energy Transformed

The potential difference between two points is the energy transferred per unit charge. An electrical circuit is an energy transformation device.


transformer is an piece of electrical apparatus which will increase or decrease the voltage in an alternating current. It can be designed to "step up" or "step down" voltages and is based on the magnetic induction principle.

The Motor Effect

A current-carrying wire or coil can exert a force on a permanent magnet. The force increases if the strength of the magnetic field and/or current increases. This is called the motor effect.

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