gcse-aqa-physics-paper-2

gcse-aqa-physics-paper-2

Turning Moments

The size of the turning effect is called a turning moment. As Newton's first law of motion states, an object will remain at rest if the forces are balanced. When the sum of the forces add to zero, a body will remain at rest or move at a constant velocity.

GCSE AQA Physics P2

Wave Speed

Wave speed is given in meters per second (the number of waves that pass per second). Wavelength is measured in meters and frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), or number of waves per second.
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Turning Moments

The size of the turning effect is called a turning moment. As Newton’s first law of motion states, an object will remain at rest if the forces are balanced. When the sum of the forces add to zero, a body will remain at rest or move at a constant velocity.
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Moments

Forces can cause an object to rotate and the turning effect of the force is called a moment. If a resultant force acts on an object about a fixed turning point called the pivot or fulcrum it will cause the object to rotate e.g. using a spanner, a screwdriver, opening a door hanging on hinges.
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Force on a Spring

When a force acts on a spring it is stretched or compressed, its length will changes by an amount e from its original length.
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Pressure

Pressure can be calculated if you know the force applied to or by an object and the contact area. The units are newtons per square meter, or N/m2.
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Forces and Work Done

The unit for work done is the joule (J), or Newton meter (N-m). One joule is equal to the amount of work that is done when 1 N of force moves an object over a distance of 1 m.
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Momentum

All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.
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Change in Momentum

All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.
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Wave Period

The period of a wave is the time it takes to complete one cycle. The unit for a wave period is seconds, and it is inversely proportional to the frequency of a wave, which is the number of cycles of a wave that occur in one second.
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Transformers

A transformer is an piece of electrical apparatus which will increase or decrease the voltage in an alternating current. It can be designed to “step up” or “step down” voltages and is based on the magnetic induction principle.
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The Motor Effect

A current-carrying wire or coil can exert a force on a permanent magnet. The force increases if the strength of the magnetic field and/or current increases. This is called the motor effect.
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Uniform Acceleration

Uniform or constant acceleration is a type of motion in which the velocity of an object changes by an equal amount in every equal time period.
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Pressure in a Gas

Gas Pressure is created when gas particles collide with the walls of their container. The more often the particles collide with the walls, and the faster they are moving, the greater the pressure.
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Pressure in Fluids

Fluid pressure is exerted on the surface of an object in a liquid. This pressure causes upthrust . An object placed in a liquid will begin to sink. As it sinks, the liquid pressure on it increases and so the upthrust increases.
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Acceleration

Acceleration is how quickly the velocity is changing whether it be speed, direction or both. Acceleration is a measure of how quickly the velocity of an object is changing.
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Speed

Speed is how fast an object is moving in no given direction. Velocity is how fast an object is moving in a given direction. In physics, you can calculate the average speed by taking the total distance travelled and dividing it by the total time required to travel that distance.
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Weight on the Moon

Weight is the force acting on an object due to gravity. The weight of an object is defined as the force of gravity on the object and can be calculated as the mass times the acceleration due to gravity.
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Weight on Earth

Weight is the force acting on an object due to gravity. The weight of an object can be defined as the force of gravity on the object. Since the weight is a force, its unit is the Newton.
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Elastic Potential Energy

Stretching or squashing an object can transfer energy into its elastic potential energy store.

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