Density is a measure of how compact the particles are in a substance. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume.

Specific Latent Heat

Specific latent heat is the energy needed to change the state of a substance.

Gravitational Potential Energy

Lifting an object in a gravitational field transfers energy into the objects gravitational energy store. Gravitational potential energy is the energy an object has due to its height above Earth.

Energy Transformed

The potential difference between two points is the energy transferred per unit charge. An electrical circuit is an energy transformation device.


All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.

The Motor Effect

A current-carrying wire or coil can exert a force on a permanent magnet. The force increases if the strength of the magnetic field and/or current increases. This is called the motor effect.


Acceleration is how quickly the velocity is changing whether it be speed, direction or both. Acceleration is a measure of how quickly the velocity of an object is changing.


Speed is how fast an object is moving in no given direction. Velocity is how fast an object is moving in a given direction. In physics, you can calculate the average speed by taking the total distance travelled and dividing it by the total time required to travel that distance.

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