Wave Speed

Wave speed is given in meters per second (the number of waves that pass per second). Wavelength is measured in meters and frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), or number of waves per second.

Turning Moments

The size of the turning effect is called a turning moment. As Newton's first law of motion states, an object will remain at rest if the forces are balanced. When the sum of the forces add to zero, a body will remain at rest or move at a constant velocity.


Forces can cause an object to rotate and the turning effect of the force is called a moment. If a resultant force acts on an object about a fixed turning point called the pivot or fulcrum it will cause the object to rotate e.g. using a spanner, a screwdriver, opening a door hanging on hinges.


Pressure can be calculated if you know the force applied to or by an object and the contact area. The units are newtons per square meter, or N/m2.

Kinetic Energy

In physics, the kinetic energy (KE) of an object is the energy that it has due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed for an object of a known mass to accelerate to a given velocity.


The quantity power is the rate at which work is done. The quicker work is done the greater the power.


The size of the current is the rate of flow of charge. Electrons are negatively charged particles which transfer energy through wires as electricity.


Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how a device or material reduces the electrical current flow through it.

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