AQA Trilogy 1-9 – P1

Kinetic Energy

In physics, the kinetic energy (KE) of an object is the energy that it has due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed for an object of a known mass to accelerate to a given velocity. What is Kinetic energy? In physics, the kinetic energy (KE) of an object is the energy that it has due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed for an object of a known mass to accelerate to a given velocity. Kinetic energy equation To calculate Kinetic energy we write the equation like this. $E_k = { 1 \over2} mv {^2}$ Kinetic energy demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the energy stored in a moving object. Chilled practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed. Calculate the Kinetic energy store in a car with a mass of 850 Kg moving at a velocity of 3.5 m/s. Frozen practice question Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write…
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Specific Heat Capacity

Specific heat capacity is how much heat energy is required to raise 1 kg of a substance by 1 °C. What is Specific heat capacity? Specific heat capacity is how much heat energy is required to raise 1 kg of a substance by 1 °C. Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance per unit of mass. The specific heat capacity of a material is a physical property and different materials have a different specific heat capacities. Specific heat capacity equation To calculate Specific heat capacity we write the equation like this. $\Delta E = mc\Delta\theta$ Specific heat capacity demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate how much energy is required to raise the temperature of a known mass of a substance. Chilled practice question The specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J/Kg/ °C. Calculate the energy needed to raise 4 Kg of water from 18 °C to 35 °C. Frozen practice question Calculate the S.H.C of 750 g of material which needs 14 KJ of heat energy to raise its temperature by 22 °C ? Science in context Specific heat capacity is how much heat energy…
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Power

The quantity power is the rate at which work is done. The quicker work is done the greater the power. What is Power? The quantity power is the rate at which work is done. The quicker work is done the greater the power. The standard metric unit of power is the Watt. The calculation of power is the work done in Joules divided by a unit of time seconds. 1 Watt is equivalent to 1 joule of work done per second. Many machines have their power rating displayed upon them in Watts, the higher the value the greater the power of the machine and the faster the rate of energy transfer. Power equation To calculate Power we write the equation like this. $P = { W \over \text{t}} = { E \over \text{t}}$ Power demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate power, the rate of doing work during an energy transfer. Chilled practice question Calculate the power of an electric fire if it transfers 950 KJ of energy in 5 minutes 30 seconds. Frozen practice question An electric heater has a power rating of 2200 W. How long to the nearest second does it take to transfer…
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Elastic Potential Energy

Stretching or squashing an object can transfer energy into its elastic potential energy store. What is Elastic potential energy? Stretching or squashing an object can transfer energy into its elastic potential energy store. Elastic energy is the mechanical potential energy stored in the material. Elastic energy occurs when objects are compressed, stretched or deformed. Elastic potential energy equation To calculate Elastic potential energy we use this equation. $E_e = { 1 \over2} ke {^2}$ Elastic potential energy demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the energy stored in a stretched spring. Chilled practice question A spring is stretched 200 cm. The spring has a spring constant of 30 N/M. Calculate the stored elastic potential energy of the stretched spring. Frozen practice question Calculate the extension of a spring if it has a stored elastic potential energy of 540 J and a spring constant of 30 N/M. Science in context Stretching or squashing an object can transfer energy into its elastic potential energy store.
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Charge

The size of the current is the rate of flow of charge. Electrons are negatively charged particles which transfer energy through wires as electricity. What is Charge? The size of the current is the rate of flow of charge. Electrons are negatively charged particles which transfer energy through wires as electricity. Charge is measured in coulombs (C). Electrons are really small and the effect of one electron would be really difficult to measure, It is easier to measure the effect of a large number of electrons. One Coulomb of charge contains 6 × 1018 electrons. Charge equation To calculate Charge we use this equation. $Q = { \mathit I \, \mathit t} $ Charge demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the the charge flowing in an electrical circuit. Chilled practice question Calculate the charge when a current of 16 A flows for 2 minutes. Frozen practice question How long must a current of 26 A flow to transfer 936 KC. Science in context The size of the current is the rate of flow of charge.
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Resistance

Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how a device or material reduces the electrical current flow through it. What is Resistance? Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how the device or material reduces the electrical current flow through it. Resistance is measured in ohms (Ω).If we make a comparison of resistance to water flow in pipes, the resistance is greater when the pipe is thinner, so the water flow is decreased It slows down which also happens to the flow of electricity. Resistance equation To calculate Resistance we write the equation like this. $V = { \mathit I \, \mathit R} $ Resistance demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the resistance in an electrical circuit. Chilled practice question Calculate the resistance of a bulb supplied with 8 V and a current flow of 2 A. Frozen practice question Calculate the current in a circuit which has a resistance of 16 Ω and a potential difference of 8 V. Science in context Resistance reduces the flow of electricity.
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Resistance in Series and Parallel

Resistors in series and in parallel can change the total resistance in a circuit. What is Resistance in series and parallel? Resistors in series and in parallel change the total resistance in a circuit. Special components called resistors are made especially for creating a precise quantity of resistance in a circuit. They are generally made of metal wire or carbon and constructed to maintain a stable steady amount of resistance over a wide range of environmental conditions. Resistance in series and parallel equation To calculate Resistance in series we use this equation. $R_t = {\mathit R_1 \text + \mathit R_2}$ Resistance in series and parallel demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the total resistance of resistors in series and parallel. Chilled practice question Calculate the current in a circuit if it is supplied with a voltage of 36 V and has two resistors in series one 6 Ω and the other 3 Ω. Frozen practice question Three resistors are connected in parallel, resistor A is 2 Ω , resistor B is 4 Ω, and resistor C is 5 Ω . What is the total resistance in the circuit ? Science in context Resistance in series and…
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Electrical Power

The power of an appliance is the energy that is transferred per second. Electric power is the rate, per unit time at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. What is Electrical power? The power of an appliance is the energy that is transferred per second. Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The unit for power is the watt, which is the transfer of energy at the rate of one joule per second. Electric power can be produced by electric generators and batteries. Electrical power equation To calculate Electrical power we use this equation. $ {\mathit P \, \text = \mathit V \mathit I}$ Electrical power demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the electrical power of an electrical appliance. Chilled practice question Calculate the power in a circuit when a p.d of 18 V and a current of 4 A is measured. Frozen practice question Find the current flowing through an appliance which has a power rating of 14 KW and a p.d of 230 V. Science in context The power of an appliance is the energy that is transferred per second
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Density

Density is a measure of how compact the particles are in a substance. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. What is Density Density is a measure of how compact the particles are in a substance. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume: ρ = m/V. The density(ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) Of the substance. Density equation To calculate Density we use this equation. ${\rho} = {\text{m} \over\text{V}}$ Density demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the density of different substances. Chilled practice question A block has a mass of 20 Kg and a volume of 0.25 m3. Calculate its density. Frozen practice question A barrel has a mass of 2500 g and a density of 2 Kg/m3. Calculate the barrels volume. Science in context Density is a measure of how compact the particles are in a substance.
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Specific Latent Heat

Specific latent heat is the energy needed to change the state of a substance. What is Specific latent heat? Specific latent heat is the energy needed to change the state of a substance. Latent heat is the energy absorbed or released by a substance during a change in its physical state. The latent heat is normally shown as the amount of heat energy in joules per Kg mass of the substance undergoing the change of state. Specific latent heat equation To calculate Specific latent heat we use this equation. $E = {\text{m} \text{L}}$ Specific latent heat demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the energy needed for different substances to change their state of matter. Chilled practice question The specific latent heat of water for melting is 334000 J/Kg. How much heat energy needed to melt a 30 Kg block of ice ? Frozen practice question What is the specific latent heat of a material if 2 Kg of the material releases 95.5 KJ of energy when it melts ? Science in context Specific latent heat is the energy needed to change the state of matter a substance.
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Half Life

The radioactivity of a sample decreases over time. Half life is a measurement of this decrease. What is Half life? The radioactivity of a sample decreases over time. Half life is a measurement in this decrease.The half-life of a radioactive substance is a constant for each radioactive material. It measures the time it takes for a known amount of the substance to become reduced by half due to radioactive decay, and therefore, the emission of radiation. Half life demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the half life of a radioactive material. Chilled practice question The activity of a radio-isotope is 1536 cpm. What is its activity after five half lives? Frozen practice question A radio-isotopes activity falls from 1880 cpm to 235 cpm in 72 minutes. Calculate it’s half life. Science in context The radioactivity of a sample decreases over time. Half life is a measurement of this decrease
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Efficiency

The efficiency of a device is the proportion of input energy that is converted to useful energy. What is Efficiency? The efficiency of a device is the proportion of input energy that is converted to useful energy. Efficiency is a measure of how much work or energy is conserved in an energy transfer, work or energy can be lost, for example as wasted heat energy. The efficiency is the useful energy output, divided by the total energy input, and can be given as a decimal always less than 1 or a percentage. No machine is 100% efficient. Efficiency equation To calculate Efficiency we use this equation. $efficiency = {\text{useful energy output} \over\text{total energy input}}$ Efficiency demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate how efficient a device is at transferring energy from one form to another. Chilled practice question Calculate the efficiency of a light bulb with a total input energy of 500 J. The bulb emits 200 J of light energy and 300 J of heat energy. Frozen practice question A tumble drier is 80% efficient. Its useful energy is 45 KJ what is the total input energy in Joules. Science in context The efficiency of a device is the proportion of…
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Energy Transformed

The potential difference between two points is the energy transferred per unit charge. An electrical circuit is an energy transformation device. What is Energy transformed? The potential difference between two points is the energy transferred per unit charge. An electrical circuit is an energy transformation device. Energy is provided to the circuit by an electrochemical cell, battery, generator or another electrical energy source. Energy is delivered by the circuit. The rate at which this energy transformation takes place has a great relevance to the design of an electrical circuit for useful functions. Energy transformed equation To calculate Energy transformed we use this equation. Energy = power x time $ {\mathit E \, \text = \mathit P \mathit t}$ Energy = charge flow x potential difference $ {\mathit E \, \text = \mathit Q \mathit V}$ Energy transformed demo In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the energy transformed through an electrical circuit. Chilled practice question Calculate the energy transformed if a circuit is supplied with 6 V and 32 C of charge flows. Frozen practice question Calculate the energy transformed when a current of 4 A flows with a p.d of 230 V for 18 s. Science in…
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