# igcse-edexcel-physics-solution

## Resistance

Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how a device or material reduces the electrical current flow through it.

## What is Resistance?

Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how the device or material reduces the electrical current flow through it. Resistance is measured in ohms (Ω).If we make a comparison of resistance to water flow in pipes, the resistance is greater when the pipe is thinner, so the water flow is decreased It slows down which also happens to the flow of electricity.

## Resistance equation

To calculate Resistance we write the equation like this.

$V = { \mathit I \, \mathit R}$

## Resistance demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the resistance in an electrical circuit.

## Chilled practice question

Calculate the resistance of a bulb supplied with 8 V and a current flow of 2 A.

## Frozen practice question

Calculate the current in a circuit which has a resistance of 16 Ω and a potential difference of 8 V.

## Science in context

Resistance reduces the flow of electricity.

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Electrical Power

The power of an appliance is the energy that is transferred per second. Electric power is the rate, per unit time at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

## What is Electrical power?

The power of an appliance is the energy that is transferred per second. Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The unit for power is the watt, which is the transfer of energy at the rate of one joule per second. Electric power can be produced by electric generators and batteries.

## Electrical power equation

To calculate Electrical power we use this equation.

${\mathit P \, \text = \mathit V \mathit I}$

## Electrical power demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the electrical power of an electrical appliance.

## Chilled practice question

Calculate the power in a circuit when a p.d of 18 V and a current of 4 A is measured.

## Frozen practice question

Find the current flowing through an appliance which has a power rating of 14 KW and a p.d of 230 V.

## Science in context

The power of an appliance is the energy that is transferred per second

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Density

Density is a measure of how compact the particles are in a substance. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume.

## What is Density

Density is a measure of how compact the particles are in a substance. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume: ρ = m/V. The density(ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) Of the substance.

## Density equation

To calculate Density we use this equation.

${\rho} = {\text{m} \over\text{V}}$

## Density demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the density of different substances.

## Chilled practice question

A block has a mass of 20 Kg and a volume of 0.25 m3. Calculate its density.

## Frozen practice question

A barrel has a mass of 2500 g and a density of 2 Kg/m3. Calculate the barrels volume.

## Science in context

Density is a measure of how compact the particles are in a substance.

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Half Life

The radioactivity of a sample decreases over time. Half life is a measurement of this decrease.

## What is Half life?

The radioactivity of a sample decreases over time. Half life is a measurement in this decrease.The halflife of a radioactive substance is a constant for each radioactive material. It measures the time it takes for a known amount of the substance to become reduced by half due to radioactive decay, and therefore, the emission of radiation.

## Half life demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the half life of a radioactive material.

## Chilled practice question

The activity of a radio-isotope is 1536 cpm. What is its activity after five half lives?

## Frozen practice question

A radio-isotopes activity falls from 1880 cpm to 235 cpm in 72 minutes. Calculate it’s half life.

## Science in context

The radioactivity of a sample decreases over time. Half life is a measurement of this decrease

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Gravitational Potential Energy

Lifting an object in a gravitational field transfers energy into the objects gravitational energy store. Gravitational potential energy is the energy an object has due to its height above Earth.

## What is Gravitational potential energy?

Lifting an object in a gravitational field transfers energy into the objects gravitational energy store. Gravitational potential energy is the energy an object has due to its height above Earth. The equation for gravitational potential energy is GPE = mgh, where m is the mass in kilograms, g is the gravitational field strength (9.8 N/Kg on Earth), and h is the height above the ground in meters.

## Gravitational potential energy equation

To calculate Gravitational potential energy we use this equation.

$E_p = mgh$

## Gravitational potential energy demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the energy stored in an elevated object.

## Chilled practice question

Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed.

A barrel is lifted onto a shelf 3.5 m from the ground. The barrel has a mass of 22 Kg. Calculate the energy in its G.P.E store.

## Frozen practice question

Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed.

A ski lift transfers 11 KJ of energy into a mans G.P.E energy store. The man has a mass of 55 Kg, calculate the height he was elevated.

## Science in context

Lifting an object in a gravitational field transfers energy into the objects gravitational energy store.

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Efficiency

The efficiency of a device is the proportion of input energy that is converted to useful energy.

## What is Efficiency?

The efficiency of a device is the proportion of input energy that is converted to useful energy. Efficiency is a measure of how much work or energy is conserved in an energy transfer, work or energy can be lost, for example as wasted heat energy. The efficiency is the useful energy output, divided by the total energy input, and can be given as a decimal always less than 1 or a percentage. No machine is 100% efficient.

## Efficiency equation

To calculate Efficiency we use this equation.

$efficiency = {\text{useful energy output} \over\text{total energy input}}$

## Efficiency demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate how efficient a device is at transferring energy from one form to another.

## Chilled practice question

Calculate the efficiency of a light bulb with a total input energy of 500 J. The bulb emits 200 J of light energy and 300 J of heat energy.

## Frozen practice question

A tumble drier is 80% efficient. Its useful energy is 45 KJ what is the total input energy in Joules.

## Science in context

The efficiency of a device is the proportion of the total input energy that is converted to useful energy.

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Energy Transformed

The potential difference between two points is the energy transferred per unit charge. An electrical circuit is an energy transformation device.

## What is Energy transformed?

The potential difference between two points is the energy transferred per unit charge. An electrical circuit is an energy transformation device. Energy is provided to the circuit by an electrochemical cell, battery, generator or another electrical energy source. Energy is delivered by the circuit. The rate at which this energy transformation takes place has a great relevance to the design of an electrical circuit for useful functions.

## Energy transformed equation

To calculate Energy transformed we use this equation.

Energy = power x time

${\mathit E \, \text = \mathit P \mathit t}$

Energy = charge flow x potential difference

${\mathit E \, \text = \mathit Q \mathit V}$

## Energy transformed demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the energy transformed through an electrical circuit.

## Chilled practice question

Calculate the energy transformed if a circuit is supplied with 6 V and 32 C of charge flows.

## Frozen practice question

Calculate the energy transformed when a current of 4 A flows with a p.d of 230 V for 18 s.

## Science in context

The potential difference between two points is the energy transferred per unit charge

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Forces and Work Done

The unit for work done is the joule (J), or Newton meter (N-m). One joule is equal to the amount of work that is done when 1 N of force moves an object over a distance of 1 m.

## Demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the work done to move an object through a known distance.

Note-Some mobile devices may require you to tap full screen during playback to view video content.

The formula for this equation is written like this:

w = f x d

## Chilled practice question

Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed.

How much work has been done if a car is pushed along the road 550 cm with a force of 400 N ?

## Frozen practice question

Copy out the question and attempt to calculate the answer before watching the solution. Write down the equation and show all of your working, remember to add the units to your answer, this routine will guarantee you maximum marks in an exam. Mark your solution and correct if needed.

75 J of work is done pulling a trolley 150 cm. Calculate the force applied.

## Science in context

Work can be calculated with the equationWork = Force × Distance. The unit for work is the joule (J), or Newton • meter (N • m). One joule is equal to the amount of work that is done when 1 N of force moves an object over a distance of 1 m.

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Momentum

All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.

## Demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the momentum in a moving object.

The equation is written like this:

$P = { \text m\; \text x \; \text v}$

## Chilled practice question

Calculate the momentum of a 1200 Kg vehicle travelling at 5 m/s.

## Frozen practice question

A girl has a mass of 60 Kg. How fast is she moving if her momentum is 240 Kgm/s ?

## Science in context

All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… ## Change in Momentum

All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.

## Demo

In this tutorial you will learn how to calculate the change in momentum and the affect it has on impact forces.

The equation is written like this:

$F = { mv \unicode{x2013} mu \over \text{t}}$

## Chilled practice question

Calculate the force acting if there is a change in momentum from zero to 168 Kgm/s for 7 s.

## Frozen practice question

A 50 kg gymnast is thrown in the air and travels at 5 m/s. The contact time to throw the gymnast is 0.5 seconds. Calculate the force acting on the gymnast.

## Science in context

.All moving objects have momentum. Forces can cause changes in momentum. The total momentum in a collision or explosion is conserved and stays the same. Car safety features absorb energy involved in a crash they slow down the collision thus reducing the force of impact.

## Millie’s Master Methods

#### Millie’s Magic Triangle

The ability to rearrange equations is the first step to successfully solve Physics calculations. Millie’s…

#### Calculation Master Method

Performing and mastering this routine will guarantee you maximum marks when solving Physics calculations. Calculation…

## The Fridge Physics Store

#### Teacher Fast Feedback

Feedback to students in seconds – Voice to label thermal bluetooth technology…

#### Get Fridge Physics Merch

Why not buy a Fridge Physics baseball cap, woollen beanie, hoodie or polo shirt, all colours and sizes available. Free delivery to anywhere in the UK!… Scroll to Top